Various stakeholders are involved in supply chains: shippers, logistic service providers, hub operators, receivers, last mile carriers, etc.. Implementation of sustainable last mile logistics solutions requires all of them to adapt their processes. Therefore, the first step in setting up successful sustainable last mile logistics is to conduct a stakeholder analysis depicting their interests and drivers and barriers for changing their behavior towards more sustainable last mile logistic concepts. A summary of the stakeholder analysis is reported in this paper.
Stakeholders play vital roles in the implementation of sustainable last mile logistics solutions. This paper analyzes the goals of the stakeholders in the Heijendaal living lab, a city logistics project that uses two hubs for bundling goods to be delivered to the Heijendaal campus in The Netherlands in order to increase the sustainability and livability of the campus.
How can the individual (non) participating behavior of various stakeholders be understood for the various stakeholders in the Heijendaal living lab?
We conduct a qualitative case study (Heijendaal living lab) and combine
The case study is carried out by conducting in depth interviews with various stakeholders. Stakeholders from most stakeholder groups and within different hierarchical levels were included in order to represent a realistic picture of the stakeholders.
A theoretical framework is developed (refer to figure 1) that combines policy deployment (top-down organizational level) and theory of planned behavior (individual choice behavior) to describe (non)participating behavior in sustainable supply. Results indicate that on the one hand, alignment of goals exists between strategic and tactical levels for both suppliers and receivers. However, the alignment of goals between the tactical and operational levels for receivers is missing. Due to this, the realization of the strategic goal of an organization is currently sub-optimal. To give an example: an organization may have a sustainability strategy, but if at the operational level goals on costs or delivery terms are prominent, using a city hub (which may lead to a longer delivery time or additional costs) may be discouraged. On the other hand, some cases of suppliers and receivers show that the sustainable behavior of an organization exists at middle-level management despite the lack of promoting sustainability goals at a strategic level. These “sustainability minded” actors should be empowered to initiate change.
This study identifies the importance of information sharing and collaboration within the supply chain, the leading role of middle-level managers in translating strategic to operational goals, and the stimulation of behavioral factors to increase participation of stakeholders in the living lab.
Figure 1. The theoretical framework adapted from the framework of organizational and behavioral mode choice processes as developed by Bogers (2017).
This paper highlighted that, in order to have the desired impact on the goals of the living lab (increased sustainability and livability, at acceptable cost and service levels), alignment between and within stakeholder goals is necessary. It was found that this alignment is not (completely) present yet. However, by conducting this study and interviewing all stakeholders about sustainable last mile logistics in the living lab Heijendaal and in general, the study proved to be an excellent kick starter to initiate the living lab: stakeholders were confronted and promoted to talk and think about sustainability and integrate their business with the lab and towards sustainability.
There are three main conclusions:
All parties involved in the supply chain are therefore advised to (1) set strategic sustainability goals and translate them via their middle management to the operational level, (2) make their personnel more aware of sustainability and (3) cope with unforeseen barriers . Furthermore, they should share information and collaborate with each other in the supply chain, which probably needs to be pro-actively enforced top-down (4). Receivers, in particular, are advised to require attention to sustainable supply in a tender, for instance through prescribing the use of a city hub (5).
Future research is advised on understanding in more detail how both mechanisms (policy deployment (top-down organizational level) and theory of planned behavior (individual choice behavior)) can be put to work in practice to reach more sustainable supply goals.
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Neem dan contact op met: Marco.Wolf@han.nl